SYMBIOSIS | COMMENSALISM | MUTUALISM | PARISITISM | AMENSALISM | COEVOLUTION

GENERAL INFORMATION - WHAT IS IT?

Ammensalism, is a type of symbiosis, and it refers to a relationship between two species in which one of the partners in inhibited, while the other is not affected in any significant way. Usually, the inhibited species is damaged by a chemical released by the other one into their shared environment.

EXAMPLES NEEDED

One natural example of ammensalism involves the growth of vegetation in the vicinity of the breeding colonies of certain types of water birds. Beneath dense colonies of such species like cormorants and herons, the trees in which their nests are built, and most of the associated understory vegetation, may be killed by the toxic excrement. The birds may eventually suffer the detriment of the loss of their nesting trees, but they receive no benefit, or harm, from the damage caused to the understory vegetation.

Humans also have amensal relationships with numerous other species. In almost all such cases, the other species suffer a detriment as a result of one or more human activities. For example, air pollution caused by automobiles, electricity generating stations, or metal smelters often causes severe damage to lichens and plants in the affected area, whereas humans receive no direct benefit from this relationship. Another example is birds, mammals, and other wildlife that suffer habitat loss when forests are clear-cut to provide wood for industrial purposes. Although humans derive economic benefits from harvesting the timber, there are no particular benefits to people from the damage caused to habitat.

The Black Walnut Tree is an example of amensalism. It releases a chemical from its roots that harms the plants around it. ‚Äč Just like the hilarious story told by Mugan about his dad and the neighbors poor, defenseless walnut tree. :)

Pine trees can cut off sunlight, not allowing vegitation to grow beneath them.

PICTURES
Black Walnut Tree
Black Walnut Tree
The forest floor doesn't have much vegetation due to the lack of sunlight
The forest floor doesn't have much vegetation due to the lack of sunlight


Another example of amensalism is the bread mold Penicillium, which secretes penicillan, a chemical that kills bacteria.


Penicillium
Penicillium












external image penicillium-roqueforti.2.jpgPhotos added by "That New Kid"











http://www.bookrags.com/research/amensalism-wob/
http://jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu/photos/MangroveForestFloorB00.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_interaction
http://scitec.uwichill.edu.bb/bcs/courses/Ecology/BL21B/symbioses.htm